Včely v úlech hynou
Včelaři s hanou na stránkách novin
Opět za nic nemůžou
Letos přišel zlý virus
Jindy bakterie moru
Celý svět se spiknul
Na vlastním prahu hnoje kopa
Ono to víte
Virus zavítá do úlů
Jako chlapík s chřipkou v tramvaji se veze
Bok po boku bedny stojí
V bednách včely
Včelař s pravdou nevyleze
Jak to tedy je?
Virus je tu jako tu byl každej rok
Jen včelaři včelařej blběj a blběji
A ta jejich chemie už moc nezabíra
Oni jí říkají léčení
A ejhle kopyto jsou to pesticidy
Ty na choroby nefunguje
Ty těm chorobám metličkou cestu šurujou
Často se lidi ptají
“heleď jak mám poznat dobrýho včelaře od MAMLASA”
Tak ji řikám
“MAMLAS ten má úly v řadách jak vojáky na sedm coulů vod sebe”
Pojďme si tu ještě jednou připomenout co píše Seeley
V mnoha bodech se totiž protínáme
Hodně volně přeloženo
- Včela jsou místní a ne např. od inseminovaných dotovaných královen
- Úly stojí daleko od sebe (alespoň 50-70 metrů)
- Úly jsou malé
- Stěnu úlu jsou potažené propolisem
- Stěny úlu jsou tlusté (dodávám že i vlhké)
- Vstup do úlu je vysoko a je malý. Tady si dovolím fotodokumentaci z paketu. Očko si propolisem zmenšily
- V úle čtvrtina trubců bydlí
- Úly jsou jednoprostorové a plásty na svých místech celý rok
- Včely nestěhujeme do jiných úlů
- Do včel “lezem” jen minimálně
- Nedovážíme jiné rodiny a ani královny ne!
- Jeden pyl z monokultury je málo
- Med je jídlo včel
- Chemie na pole nepatří soudruzi
- Chemie do úlu nepatří soudruzi
- Med a pyl přes zimu nech
- Ne mezistěnám
- Množ rojem
- Ne umělé inseminaci královen
- Zachovej poměr trubců a dělnic
- Hledej odolné rodiny a vybírej
Věrně Václav Smolík OPYLař český
1: Colonies are vs. are not genetically adapted to their locations. Each of the subspecies of Apis mellifera was adapted to the climate and flora of its geographic range and each ecotype within a subspecies was adapted to a particular environment. Shipping mated queens and moving colonies long distances for migratory beekeeping forces colonies to live where they may be poorly suited. A recent, large-scale experiment conducted in Europe found that colonies with queens of local origin lived longer than colonies with queens of non-local origin (Büchler et al. 2014).
2: Colonies live widely spaced across the landscape vs. crowded in apiaries. This difference makes beekeeping practical, but it also creates a fundamental change in the ecology of honey bees. Crowded colonies experience greater competition for forage, greater risk of being robbed, and greater problems reproducing (e.g., swarms combining and queens entering wrong hives after mating). Probably the most harmful consequence of crowding colonies, though, is boosting pathogen and parasite transmission between colonies (Seeley & Smith 2015). This facilitation of disease transmission boosts the incidence of disease and it keeps alive the virulent strains of the bees’ disease agents.
3: Colonies live in relatively small nest cavities vs. in large hives. This difference also profoundly changes the ecology of honey bees. Colonies in large hives have the space to store huge honey crops but they also swarm less because they are not as space limited, which weakens natural selection for strong, healthy colonies since fewer colonies reproduce. Colonies kept in large hives also suffer greater problems with brood parasites such as Varroa (Loftus et al. 2015).
4: Colonies live with vs. without a nest envelope of antimicrobial plant resin. Living without a propolis envelope increases the cost of colony defense against pathogens. For example, worker in colonies without a propolis envelope invest more in costly immune system activity (i.e., synthesis of antimicrobial peptides) relative to workers in colonies with a propolis envelope (Borba et al. 2015).
5: Colonies have thick vs. thin nest cavity walls. This creates a difference in the energetic cost of colony thermoregulation, esp. in cold climates. The rate of heat loss for a wild colony living in a typical tree cavity is 4-7 times lower than for a managed colony living in a standard wooden hive (Mitchell 2016).
6: Colonies live with high and small vs. low and large entrances. This difference renders managed colonies more vulnerable to robbing and predation (large entrances are harder to guard), and it may lower their winter survival (low entrances get blocked by snow, preventing cleansing flights).
7: Colonies live with vs. without plentiful drone comb. Inhibiting colonies from rearing drones boosts their honey production (Seeley 2002) and slows reproduction by Varroa (Martin 1998), but it also hampers natural selection for colony health by preventing the healthiest colonies from passing on their genes (via drones) the most successfully.
8: Colonies live with vs. without a stable nest organization. Disruptions of nest organization for beekeeping may hinder colony functioning. In nature, honey bee colonies organize their nests with a precise 3-D organization: compact broodnest surrounded by pollen stores and honey stored above (Montovan et al. 2013). Beekeeping practices that modify the nest organization, such as inserting empty combs to reduce congestion in the broodnest, hamper thermoregulation and may disrupt other aspects of colony functioning such as egg laying by the queen and pollen storage by foragers.
9: Colonies experience infrequent vs. sometimes frequent relocations. Whenever a colony is moved to a new location, as in migratory beekeeping, the foragers must relearn the landmarks around their hive and must discover new sources of nectar, pollen, and water. One study found that colonies moved overnight to a new location had smaller weight gains in the week following the move relative to control colonies already living in the location (Moeller 1975).
10: Colonies are rarely vs. frequently disturbed. We do not know how frequently wild colonies experience disturbances (e.g., bear attacks), but it is probably rarer than for managed colonies whose nests are easily cracked open, smoked, and manipulated. In one experiment, Taber (1963) compared the weight gains of colonies that were and were not inspected during a honey flow, and found that colonies that were inspected gained 20-30% less weight (depending on extent of disturbance) than control colonies on the day of the inspections.
11: Colonies do not vs. do deal with novel diseases. Historically, honey bee colonies dealt only with the parasites and pathogens with whom they had long been in an arms race. Therefore, they had evolved means of surviving with their agents of disease. We humans changed all this when we triggered the global spread of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor from eastern Asia, small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) from sub-Saharan Africa, and chalkbrood fungus (Ascosphaera apis) and acarine mite (Acarapis woodi) from Europe. The spread of Varroa alone has resulted in the deaths of millions of honey bee colonies (Martin 2012).
12: Colonies have diverse vs. homogeneous food sources. Some managed colonies are placed in agricultural ecosystems (e.g., huge almond orchards or vast fields of oilseed rape) where they experience low diversity pollen diets and poorer nutrition. The effects of pollen diversity were studied by comparing nurse bees given diets with monofloral pollens or polyfloral pollens. Bees fed the polyfloral pollen lived longer than those fed the monofloral pollens (Di Pasquale et al. 2013).
13: Colonies have natural diets vs. sometimes being fed artificial diets. Some beekeepers feed their colonies protein supplements (“pollen substitutes”) to stimulate colony growth before pollen is available, to fulfill pollination contracts and produce larger honey crops. The best pollen supplements/substitutes do stimulate brood rearing, though not as well as real pollen and may result in workers of poorer quality (Scofield and Mattila 2015).
14: Colonies are not vs. are exposed to novel toxins. The most important new toxins of honey bees are insecticides and fungicides, substances for which the bees have not had time to evolve detoxification mechanisms. Honey bees are now exposed to an ever increasing list of pesticides and fungicides that can synergise to cause harm to bees (Mullin et al. 2010).
15: Colonies are not vs. are treated for diseases. When we treat our colonies for diseases, we interfere with the host-parasite arms race between Apis mellifera and its pathogens and parasites. Specifically, we weaken natural selection for disease resistance. It is no surprise that most managed colonies in North America and Europe possess little resistance to Varroa mites, or that there are populations of wild colonies on both continents that have evolved strong resistance to these mites (Locke 2016). Treating colonies with acaracides and antibiotics may also interfere with the microbiomes of a colony’s bees (Engel et al. 2016).
16: Colonies are not vs. are managed as sources of pollen and honey. Colonies managed for honey production are housed in large hives, so they are more productive. However, they are also less apt to reproduce (swarm) so there is less scope for natural selection for healthy colonies. Also, the vast quantity of brood in large-hive colonies renders them vulnerable to population explosions of Varroa mites and other disease agents that reproduce in brood (Loftus et al. 2015).
17: Colonies do not vs. do suffer losses of beeswax. Removing beeswax from a colony imposes a serious energetic burden. The weight-to-weight efficiency of beeswax synthesis from sugar is at best about 0.10 (data of Weiss 1965, analyzed in Hepburn 1986), so every pound of wax taken from a colony costs it some 10 pounds of honey that is not available for other purposes, such as winter survival. The most energetically burdensome way of harvesting honey is removal of entire combs filled with honey (e.g., cut comb honey and crushed comb honey). It is less burdensome to produce extracted honey since this removes just the cappings wax.
18: Colonies are vs. are not choosing the larvae used for rearing queens. When we graft day-old larvae into artificial queen cups during queen rearing, we prevent the bees from choosing which larvae will develop into queens. One study found that in emergency queen rearing the bees do not choose larvae at random and instead favor those of certain patrilines (Moritz et al. 2005).
19: Drones are vs. are not allowed to compete fiercely for mating. In bee breeding programs that use artificial insemination, the drones that provide sperm do not have to prove their vigor by competing amongst other drones for mating. This weakens the sexual selection for drones that possess genes for health and strength.
20: Drone brood is not vs. is removed from colonies for mite control. The practice of removing drone brood from colonies to control Varroa destructor partially castrates colonies and so interferes with natural selection for colonies that are healthy enough to invest heavily in drone production.
21. Comparison of the environments in which honey bee colonies lived (and sometimes still do) as wild colonies and those in which they live currently as managed colonies.